НИЦ "ИКАР" - 34 года с вами

"МИС-РТ" - 1999. Сборник №19

Millimeter Wave Radiation's Effects
on Mental States - a philosophical
framework for study of MMR

Jeremy Horne, Ph.D.

     Millimeter Wave Radiation (MMWR) therapy is upon us and is proving itself to be a remarkable therapeutic regimen. (BEMS Program) However, besides being more than just a tool or technique, it promises to be a probe into the very core of our being. To grasp this idea, we need to know what MMRW is, how it is being used, and just how it poses as a doorway to knowing more about our very existence, our mental states and how we fit into the universe. Ultimately, our position as human beings allows us to ask, "Who are we? Why are we here? What happens after our earthly existence?"


What is MMRW?

    The MMWR band lies between 1 mm 10 mm of the electromagnetic spectrum, at the higher frequency edge of the microwave spectrum. MMWR therapies and techniques comprise a part of a larger field known as bioelectromagnetics (BEM). BEM is the theory and application of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum from over 0 Hz to above 1025 Hz. (BEMS, Ziskin, Shironosov, Betskii, p. 10, Rakovic). There are both thermal and non-thermal effects, thermal being defined as creating a temperature rise at the limit of 10 mW/cm2 of the radiated surface. (Betskii,p. 10; Heynick and Polson, p. 2) Thermal effects are usually readily observable, and there may be accompanying psychological effects, as well. However, the less apparent non-thermal effects of low intensity MMWR offer a greater possibility of exploring our mental states because of the effect on neural transmissions and ultimately on our very mental state. (Ibid). Because of this most important fact, I will concentrate on low intensity mm wave radiation. A growing volume of research indicates that such radiation offers remarkable therapy and may be a way of exploring our very mental state. (Ziskin, Betskii, Rakovic, BEMS) However, one should be aware that research into the effects of microwave radiation has often led to closer examination of the millimeter wave range, as well.

Historical Markers in the Development of Energy Therapies

    A number of milestones in the history of MMWR illustrate the efficacy of energy field theory and point to the prospect of further success of using this energy to effect change. The following is not meant to be a complete survey of the field but merely an illustration of where MMWR has been and where it stands presently.

    Sufficient motivation exists for targeting energy fields as a primary influence of mental state. It has long been known that electricity affects the human body. In 1780 Luigi Galvani demonstrated relationships between electric current and muscle movement. Electrical energy affects mental state, a stark modern example being electroshock therapy commonly prescribed for mentally disordered patients. It is known that the length and type of white light affects mood functions, as with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

    Indeed, one could refer to electrocutions or bullets, where a sudden jolt of energy puts one to death. A sudden shock either to the heart or the brain instantly ends life, although life at the cellular level continues. That life could end so abruptly when either is attacked has given rise to speculation that the center of mental state is at either or both the heart and brain. However, such does not seem to have credibility upon further examination; there is no homunculus, a coordination point for mental state. (Dennet, for example, pp. 259-262, 267).

    In 1968, H. Frohlich wrote that OH radicals cohere in large group and resonate when subjected to 10^11 Hz radiation. (Frohlich, "Long Range Coherence…") Frohlich has written that in various biological materials coherent electrical dipole vibrations suspended in a neutral fluid occur that can cause structural deformations. (Frohlich, "The Extraordinary…", p.1093) "…irradiation of a great variety of biological objects with coherent millimeter waves in the frequency range of 0.5 x 1011 Hz can exert a great [non-thermal] influence on many biological activities …", more specifically, coherent, giant dipole oscillations. It is assumed that resonance with a frequency width of 2 x 108 occurs because of electric coupling with "…the thin layers of structured water found attached to biomolecules…". (Ibid,. 4212)

    Towards the turn of the 1960s decade OV Betskii of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS), met with Frohlich about this work. (Devyatkov and Betskii) In the mid-1960s, microwave transmission was being perfected, and its affects on the human body were becoming known. Navy personnel running microwave transmission dishes would joke about warming their hands in front of the dishes. However, Frohlich and Betskii's work centered on very much more subtle non-thermal effects of millimeter frequencies. This point marked a divergence between emphasizing the thermal versus the non-thermal effects of MMWR.

    Betskii, ND Devyatkov, and dozens of other researchers worked feverishly in Moscow at their Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and other research centers ferreting out applications. Numerous therapeutic uses emerged, such as millimeter acupuncture. (Betskii, Ziskin, Shironosov, BEMS, Koruga, Rakovic). Work continues.

    These works did not gain much currency in the US, due partly to the massive influence of the pharmaceutical industry. In fairness, pharmaceuticals have shown their value, starting with antibiotics in the 1940s and, since the 1960s, medicines for mental disorders. Convinced of the effectiveness of these medicines, there was little incentive to search avenues of alternative treatment. Of late, however, increasing attention has been given to MMWR approaches. Several examples serve to demonstrate the emerging significance and credibility of MMWR.

Hameroff, Penrose, Smoot et al

    Frohlich's work remained somewhat of a curiosity in the United States until 1982, when Hameroff published work showing that information processing occurs in tubulin dimers on the surface of the microtubule in the human neuron. (Cited in Hameroff and Penrose, "Conscious Events…")

    This wave function collapse to the value one is seen in the cytoskeleton, or microtubules, of neurons. Tubulin subunits make up the microtubule and are dimers (a bipolar entity that can assume either a positive or negative state), and these act as binary computational structures (Rasmussen et al. 1990, p. 428-449). When polarization occurs in the gigahertz range (109 to 1011 Hz) (Frohlich, "Long-Range…" p.1412) among groups of these dimers, the neuron assumes a shape that seems to modulate the neural pulse (Hameroff and Penrose 1994, p. 517-518).

    However, the phenomenon seems to have cosmological correlates.

    About 100 (1011 Hz) to 1000 GHz most clearly shows the uniformity of cosmic background radiation (CBR at 2.73 K (±.01 with a 95% degree of confidence) (Smoot 1995, p. 5), the same as black body radiation and about the same value as the natural logarithm e (2.718). Frohlich's upper boundary of 1011 is the lower boundary of CBR, or the unit measure of 1 mm.

    As Penrose said: "...there should vibrational effects within active cells which would resonate with microwave electromagnetic radiation, at 1011 Hz, as a result of biological quantum coherence phenomenon" (Penrose 1994, p. 352). If the 1011 frequency is what "activates" mental state, it would be reasonable to investigate how this high frequency could be modulated to, in turn, modulate the low frequency neural pulse (1-40 Hz), in effect a "double modulation."

Slovene Research

    Under the auspices of the Bion Institute, extensive research is focusing upon the effects of subtle fields. Some projects include:

  • emission of subtle fields from human hands.
  • comparing water exposed to millimeter radiation to unexposed water.
  • bioluminescence resulting from photon storage in living cells.
  • detection of corona discharge (electrophotography).work on organisms and water.

(Bion Institute)

    Particularly interesting is work indicating living beings emit ultraweak electromagnetic radiation, and "…organisms can influence each other through indirect non-chemical and perhaps electromagnetic alteration of water." (Jerman et al)

Russian Academy of Sciences

    Primarily led by N.D. Devyatkov and O.V. Betskii, under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics), research has proceeded to examine the effects of millimeter wave radiation on biological structures. Resulting from numerous works previously published, a compendium of research was introduced in Moscow, Biological Aspects of Low Intensity Millimeter Waves in 1994. Gaiduk investigated how polar media in aqueous solutions is affected by MMW radiation. (Devyatkov and Betskii, p. 262) In landmark research, Chernavsky, Karp, and Rodshtat proposed a lamina theory of neural processing, where electromagnetic radiation is transduced through layers of neurons, ultimately being processed in the neocortex. Their work advanced MMW acupuncture therapy. (Ibid, p. 164)

    RAS-sponsored international collaborations on the subject in the early 1990s drew individuals and institutions worldwide, not the least of which was the U.S. Air Force. ("Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health" , Millimeter Waves …p. 332..)


    Yugoslavian-based research has uncovered remarkable findings about the efficacy of MMWR therapy. Dejan Rakovic and colleagues have been conducting research into low intensity MMWR for acupuncture. One should be cautious about the conjectures but should pay attention to the reported therapeutic effects. Rakovic has reported that he was able to subject individuals to 57-78 GHz radiation for 20 minutes and induce a meditative state, i.e., a recorded EEG state of 4 Hz. (Rakovic, pp. 399-412). Implications of this are profound, not the least of which is the ability to induce transitional mental states, where an individual is most susceptible to ideation. Given that a person can be brought to a near 0 Hz state, the next question, of course, is whether one can be brought to a 0 Hz state. If persons who have been clinically dead have recovered fully, what logically would prevent a person who has been brought to that state artificially from being brought back to normal?

Temple University

    From the United States side two researchers from Temple University published an article, "Medical application of millimeter waves" that recounts developments in millimeter wave application in medical therapeutics. It summarizes developments that have occurred worldwide, starting with how scientists discovered the effects of millimeter waves on biological structures in the 1960s and continuing with work primarily in Russia and Eastern Europe. Extended from this is ongoing research by the staff at the Richard J. Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, such as work by Stanislev Alexeev and M.C. Ziskin on the effects of millimeter waves on mollusk neurons. (Alexeev and Ziskin) Some of the conclusions about the effects of millimeter wave radiation, based upon peer-reviewed research, include:

  • Enhancing the human immune system. (p.60)
  • Treatment of wound infections. (p.60)
  • Ameliorating of drug withdrawal symptoms. (p. 58)
  • Reduction of peptic ulcers. (p.61)

(Rojavin and Ziskin)

    However, to date, the only center even considering therapeutic applications of MMW radiation is the laboratory at Temple. (Personal e-mail correspondence with Alexeev 1 March 2000)

United States Air Force

    For the last decade there has been increasing interest in the effects of using cellular phones, which operate at about 2 GHz. Propelled partly by concerns about microwave safety, the USAF established its USAF Research Directorate in San Antonio Texas to study the effects of MMWR.

    In an almost frantic effort reminiscent of the Manhattan project during World War Two, the USAF has assembled an impressive staff of scientists to research and develop devices and techniques involving millimeter radiation. Ostensibly because this military unit wanted to examine the hazards of EM radiation and design safety countermeasures, it is clear that its purposes extend beyond protecting personnel. On its website, the USAF said, "Bioeffects issues are critical to the success of new non-lethal weapons. Because of our core Bioeffects expertise, we have become a major test facility for the Bioeffects of non-lethal weapons." (10 March 2000)

    So seriously does the USAF take MMW research, that it has sent delegates to Biolelectromagnetics Society conferences and conferences in Russia to participate in this arena by presenting reports and presumably to gather information. (BEMS, Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics)

Linking it together

    MMWR may have a profound effect on human mental state, if the above-cited work has substantial veracity. However, there is an urgent need for research to verify claims made by researchers asserting such effects. Part of this paper is an argument for the importance and implications of such work. At least, traditionally staid, conservative institutions like Temple are examining the effects of MMWR on physiological structures with increased interest. One may ask whether such effects on neural and brain structures also can alter mental states.

    When numerous disparate unconnected scholars report similar results in an area of study, such should be subject to public review and critique. In all this research, a common thread emerges, that MMWR has lasting and profound effect on the human organism. However these developments have implications beyond their applicative value.

Our Universe and Significance of MMWR in it

    An open-minded competent medical practitioner searching for effective treatment will consider MMWR if appropriate evidence exists for its effectiveness. It is simply another item in a vast arsenal of weapons against disease. However, MMWR has a significantly different character than previous methods. Besides being noninvasive, the effects are subtle but profound, contrary to the more pronounced and readily observable effects of conventional medicine. Bound inside the phenomenology of energy is an essence of its significance. To appreciate this, we must think about the idea of energy, itself. To do so requires philosophy, more particularly, ontology and epistemology. Ontology is about existents, or what there is. Epistemology is the study of how we know. I start with an epistemological method that has been main edifice upon which all of modern science has rested.

    For thousands of years, signified by Oriental and mid-Asian thinking, humankind knew of the holistic manner of explaining our existence. It is knowing the infinite. In 1652, Rene Descartes set forth in his Discourse on the Method a radically different approach to understanding. For example, Descartes says, "I wished to descend to those [things] which were more particular, so many objects of various kinds presented themselves to me … ." (Descartes, pp. 121). You come to know the whole by dividing it into its smaller constituents, and, continuing the process, you extend toward the infinitesimal. (Source -Discourse on Method) It is instructive to engage in a short mental exercise. Keep subdividing an entity, such as a piece of paper, and see how far you can go. From a discernable whole, you end in a world of the unseen and are confronting quarks and the processes that govern their interactions. Beyond the capability to measure extends to what most persons is the world of the abstract.

    These polar epistemologies, knowing by apprehending a whole and knowing by dividing the whole into its constituents, reveal the two parts the process of the dialectic engine: the process that generates the infinite that is the whole and the process that generates the infinitesimal. Something is understood in terms of what it is not. The vast expanses of eternity can be apprehended only in terms of the miniscule; the miniscule can be understood only in terms of the vast expanses of eternity.

On what exists

    How far Descartes has taken us! In carrying Descartes' method of subdividing to its furthest logical extent, we are reduced to confronting what hitherto has been deemed merely the abstract. Physicists do not see the seemingly abstract becoming real as a foreign idea, but there still are problems. We have processes, devices, and measurement techniques that allow us to observe the traces of fundamental processes. The smallest observable elements seem to be there, but they will not allow certain observation. Statistical mechanics is an attempt to make the problem of particle locality manageable. This is because of a phenomenon what might be called "perceptual lag." Look at Alpha Centauri; it takes X amount of time for the light to reach your eyes. For the sun, it is eight minutes. Pressing the logic to the wall, we find that there is a computable amount of time for the photons to leave an entity and reach your eyes. By the time those photons have reached your eyes, the entity has changed in the world-time line. This substantiates Heisenberg, in that it is impossible to measure position and momentum at the same time. Heisenberg's so-called paradox simply is a re-statement of this "perceptual lag." A second problem, of course, emerges. To what focal point in the your physical body are we referring when we say that you realize that there has been this "perceptual lag?" Inasmuch as there is no homunculus, we have an issue of central processing location. Not that we can resolve this issue here, but one should be aware of the problem.

    Conceptually, we can refer to a change in space-time, but really what is the smallest delta s-t? What is the smallest amount of space-time transition? The infinitesimal calculus provides a method for our setting the limit. The answer would be a discrete, if the question had to identify a smallest unit; otherwise we are left with continuity. . Rephrasing the question, we have, "What is change?" The transition from change to absolute stasis is the same transition that bespeaks of going from the dimension shaping the character of the physical laws governing our universe to another dimension that holds things differently.

    A framework contains these aspects of motion as existents. Richard Feynnman discussed the "character of physical law" (in his book by that title); simplicity is "common to all our laws." (Feynman, p. 33) Our universe is not bounded necessarily by actual measurements, such as the number of light years, but by the character of process, such as the speed of light or the inverse square law of attracting bodies. These processes are aspects of the fundamental existent of pure movement and are what characterizes the dimension framing this universe. Our universe may be described heuristically as a torus, with processes forming its edges and the center. Initialization points, such as microscopic black holes, illustrate the center. End points, such as larger black holes represent the edges. That is, the character of physical law is a process that forms the dimensional boundary of the universe.

    The process is a boundary parameter of the dimension containing this universe determines the smallest inflection of space-time. What we can understand phenomenologically is bounded by our capacity to measure. Our scientific understanding, especially our conceptualizations, dictates that we verify by observation, but the boundary parameter sets the ultimate measurement limit. Even though we may be able some day to discern elements ultimately measured, we are forced to infer the nature of the whole. We start with a deductive methodology of knowing by certainty and end with inductive reasoning, knowing something probabilistically. Vision, for example, works like this, where our rods and cones in our eyes identify discrete packets of photons, while our mental apparatus translates this to continuity.

    We enter the world of what physicists refer to as a wave-particle duality, where an entity takes on the characteristics of both a wave and a particle. A wave may be thought of, here, as being analogous to induction, and the particle deduction; the former is not discrete, where the latter is. However, there is no reason conceptually to stop at this level of the infinitesimal, and here is where philosophy, logic, in particular, may assist in ultimate synthesis. True, the conceptual development often races ahead of our ability to measure, as the classic case of Democritus and atoms illustrates.

    At this level, much smaller than a particle, we have an entity known only in terms of space-time. We know it because of what it not. It is movement in terms of non-movement. Of course it is relativistic, unless one wants to argue for absolute stasis. Here, the pure dialectic, the process allowing manifestation to occur by contradiction (something in terms of what it is not) works to reveal that which is. These aspects of motion are the existents of our being. From these, everything emerges - quarks, atoms, molecules, you, even ideas, and me. It is all bound by dimension, and that dimension is process. At the end, heat death (so well described by Paul Davies in his last chapter of God and the New Physics), energy is dispersed; there is no more movement; this is the absolute of motionlessness in this dimension. It is the reality of Boltzmann. If heat death indeed is the end, Einstein's interconvertibility of matter and energy reverts to dispersed energy/matter, or nothingness.

    There is nothing to say that within the process boundary of this dimension there is the condition allowing for a change of condition or exchange with another universe. At least, entertaining such a possibility mitigates the bleakness of finality. The dimension containing the parameters that shaped the transition from the initial to the end state holds any key to our future.

    We may say, then, the abstract has become real, and what we take to be real is abstract. The real consists of that which is. The smallest entity forms the basis of that which is constructed, and that which is constructed may be altered. Whatever is alterable is abstract and contaminated; what is unchangeable is real. More broadly put, we make our own reality, while Reality rests at its own will.

On what we are investigating

    So true is this in discerning what is life and how we may regard energy interactions with it. In the broad continuum of motion there are embedded assemblages both organic and inorganic that fulfill all the criteria humans have given to what constitutes life. Consciousness fares no better in being identified. Hence, in this essay, I refer to a "mental state". Common to both life and mental state, however, is motion (opposed to "particles," as discussed previously). It is to motion we must direct ourselves for elucidation of our nature. Too, motion forms the substrate for our quest for the nature of our being with energy fields, such as MMW radiation.

    If everything is reducible to movement, or energy, then, it would stand to reason that energy affects energy - it is only a matter of what type and how each energy type affects the other. Using this paradigm, it would make sense, then, to discuss the various MMWR interactions with the human organism, including our mental being, call it "consciousness," (mental state) "mind," or "cognizance." Of course, this opens the possibility of modifying that mental being at will. I do not want to dichotomize mental from physical, but want merely to regard "mental" as an heuristic category into which we place that which enables a realization of ourselves. We then come to the question, "How could MMW radiation be used to control mental being? "

Crossing the River Styx

    In Classical mythology, people die, board a boat and cross over River Styx to the land of the dead. Who has not wondered about what happens to our mental being after we are declared "deceased?" Physically, we can observe the effects of death, such as the absence of heartbeat and no pulmonary function. A thought experiment expresses how our search for answers might proceed. It is similar to the theme in the movie "Flatliners," where youthful researchers attempt to induce a death state in a person and then attempt revival. In principle it is possible to brain map (combination of MRI, PET, sonogram, and EEG) various mental states , building, as it were, a vocabulary of concepts. That is, a brain map would correspond to the subject 's mental state. Work is currently being done to that effect. Techniques, such as Brain Activity Maps offer promise for useful correlations between measurement and condition. (Hardt) Elsewhere, Tononi and others are investigating neural correlates of perceptual dominance in humans. As described in the research,

A red vertical grating flickering at one frequency was presented to one eye through a red filter and a blue horizontal grating flickering at a different frequency was presented to the other eye through a blue filter. Steady-state neuromagnetic responses at the two frequencies were used as tags for the two stimuli and analyzed with high-resolution power spectra. (Tononi and Srinivasan)

    From approaches like these, a conceptual vocabulary would be mapped to that person's expression of it, i.e., by reportage, or by the correlation of stimuli receptors (the five or so senses) to brain activity (PET, MRI, and EEG). In common parlance, what is happening to the person? Once we find out, in principle, it should be possible to reproduce that condition by modern means, such as electro stimulation of critical brain areas.

    Capturing this information from a person actually dying is difficult because of the person's inability to recover and report what has happened. However, a "controlled death" may offer possibilities. One example of controlled death is that of the Nirvikalpa Samadhi yogi, whose ultimate aim is to induce death. (Talks with Ramana, 3rd edition, page 293) (" Samadhi-According to Hittleman, Samadhi 'represents the attainment of yoga, wherein reintegration and ultimate union are experienced." The individual self is absorbed in the "universal mind.'" (http://www.cardisense.com/yoga2.htm ) One may liken this person's transition to death to the Western Catholic's religious devotion as a preparation to ascending to Heaven. Of course, any claims would have to fulfill the criteria demanded by modern scientific methods, and this would be the rational for advancing research in this area.

    For example, Green and Green report that Swami Rama controlled his temperature, blood flow, brain waves and heartbeat, which at one time stopped. As a result of techniques from Hatha and Radja Yoga, other Yogis had before already demonstrated this enormous ability to stop the heartbeat, at times, for a considerable time span. (Green and Green) Other researchers claim observing a significant drops in blood pressure as the result of Yoga. Additionally, they write of an increase in red blood cells, a significant change in the hematocrit values, and increases in hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts. (Funderburk, Patel, Bhole) If a person can bring her/himself to a death state by yoga, could an experimenter under controlled laboratory conditions induce such a condition artificially?

    As indicated above, Rakovic may have done this. Persinger has argued that earthquakes generate electromagnetic waves that make humans think that they have been abducted by aliens. What is remarkable is that he has been able to induce this condition in people by inducing mental states by mixed static magnetic fields various devices. (Persinger)

Reporting from the other side of the River Styx

    I discussed some milestones of MMW research to indicate its importance and acceptability with the larger purpose of presenting methods and implications of research for exploring our being. We are at the doorstep of knowing what lies in the previously forbidden world of the beyond. By carrying a reasoning process rejuvenated by the Enlightenment (read " illumination") to a further extent, we have reduced the universe to its ultimate conceptual constituents of reality, movement entities within a dimension bounded by a process. The character of this process is expressed by the most fundamental law of all - that which is exists in terms of what it is not. What we are exists in terms of what we are not, and what we are not is what we may be after we transition from where we are. What really DOES happen to us after we die? This motivates the present quest. It is the age-old question common to all religions and is the ultimate focus of human exploits. Given sufficient will, we can know, and with sufficient courage, we will, with a will imbued with its full meaning and implications

Jeremy Horne, Ph.D.
15 Copper Hill Court
Durham, NC 27713


  1. ^   Bion Institute (1999)
  2. ^   Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics. http://www.cplire.ru/html/welinf.html
  3. ^   "Radio Frequency Radiation Bioeffects Research at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory - The Radio Frequency Branch." (2000).
  4. ^   Alexeev, S.I. and Ziskin, M.C. (1999) "Effects of Millimeter Waves on Ionic Currents of Lynaea Neurons" Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 20, p. 24-33.
  5. ^   BEMS (Biolelectromagnetics Society) . Twenty-first Annual Meeting: Technical Program and Registration (1999) Long Beach, CA: The Hyatt Regency, 20-24 June.
  6. ^   Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology - Digest of Papers, 11th Russian Symposium, 21-24 April 1997, Moscow, Russia.
  7. ^   "USAMRD Microwave Bioeffects Branch, McKesson BioServices' Publication List 1994-1997, (US Air Force).
  8. ^   Bhole, M. V. (1967) "Treatment of Bronchial Asthma by Yogic Methods,". Yoga-Mimansa. (publisher?)
  9. ^   Dennett, Daniel C. (1991) Consciousness Explained. (Boston: Little Brown and Company).
  10. ^   Descartes, Rene (1977) trans. Elizabeth S. Haldane and G.R.T. Ross. "Discourse on the Method" in The Philosophical Works of Descartes Rene Descartes set forth in his Discourse on the Method s, Vol. 1. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
  11. ^   Devyatkov, N.D. and Betskii, O.V., eds. (1994) Biological Aspects of Low Intensity Millimeter Waves. Moscow: Seven Plus Publishers,.
  12. ^   Feynman, Richard. (1967) The Character of Physical Law. (M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA)
  13. ^   Frohlich H. (1968) "Long-Range Coherence and Energy Storage in Biological Systems". International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Vol II, pp 641-649.
  14. ^   Frohlich H. (1975) "The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes." (72 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 4211-4215.
  15. ^   Funderburk, James. "Science Studies Yoga,", Himalayan Publishers.
  16. ^   Gabriel, Camellia and Gabriel, Sami . "Compilation of The Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues at RF and Microwave Frequencies," June 1996, Final Report for the Period 15 December 1994 - 14 December 1995, Prepared for AFOSR/NL Bolling AFB DC 20332-0001
  17. ^   Green, Alyce and Green , Elmer. (19**) Beyond Biofeedback. (….: Knoll Publishing.) ISBN 0-940267-14-4.
  18. ^   Hameroff S. R. et al. (1992) "Conformational Automata in the Cytoskeleton." 25 Computer 30-39.
  19. ^   Hameroff S. and Roger Penrose (1996) "Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A Model for Consciousness." Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Eds. S.R. Hameroff et al. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 507-540.
  20. ^   Hardt, James V. (1994) "Text of a Presentation to the I.O.P Symposium on 'Altered States of Consciousness' Sunday October 1, 1994 in Porto Carras, Greece on Partial Differential Psychophysiological Surfaces: A Method for Mapping and Altering Human Mind States" Institute, San Francisco, CA.
  21. ^   Heynick, Louis N. and Polson, Peter. (1996) Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation: A Review Pertinent to Air Force Operations. Publication No. AL/OE-TR-1996-0035 (Brooks Air Force Base, Texas: USAF Armstrong Laboratory).
  22. ^   Jerman, I., Berden, M., and Ruzic, R. (1996) "Biological influence of ultraweak supposedly EM radiation from organisms mediated through water. Electro and Magnetobiology Vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 229-244.
  23. ^   Jibu, Mari and Yasue, Kunio (1997) "What is Mind? - Quantum Field Theory of Evanescent Photons in Brain as Quantum Theory of Consciousness." Informatica Vol. pp. 471-490
  24. ^   Koruga, Djuro and Rakovic, Dejan. (1995) Consciousness - Scientific Challenge of the 21st Century. Belgrade: Joint Laboratory for Cognitive Neurosciences and Neuroengineering, University of Belgrade)
  25. ^   Patel, .. (19**) "Yoga and Biofeedback in the Management of Hypertension,", Lancet 73:1053
  26. ^   Penrose R. (1994) Shadows of the Mind New York: Oxford University Press.
  27. ^   Persinger, Michael A., The Tectonic Strain Theory As An Explanation For UFO Phenomena: A Brief History and Summary 1970 to 1997. Laurentian University Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: http://www.laurentian.ca .
  28. ^   Rakovic, Dejan (1999) "Electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of some activities which may alter consciousness". Informatica, Vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 399-412.
  29. ^   Rasmussen S. et al. (1990) "Computational Connectionism within Neurons: A Model of Cytoskeletal Automata Subserving Neural Networks" North-Holland: Physica D 42 428-449.
  30. ^   Rojavin, M.A. and Ziskin, M.C., "Commentary - Medical application of millimetre waves," 91 Q J Medicine 57-66 (1998).
  31. Smoot G.F. (31 May1995) "The Cosmic Background Radiation" Astrophysics Journal 9505139.
  32. ^   Giulio Tononi, Ramesh Srinivasan, D. Patrick Russell, and Gerald M. Edelman, "Investigating neural correlates of conscious perception by frequency-tagged neuromagnetic responses". Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 95, Issue 6, 3198-3203, March 17, 1998
  33. ^   United States Air Force - Armed Forces Research Laboratory at Brooks Air Force Base Web Page.
  34. ^   Wuensche A. (1993) The Ghost in the Machine: Basins of Attraction of Random Boolean Networks. (University of Sussex at Brighton: Cognitive Science Research Papers, CSRP 281.